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欧美漫画悄然火爆这已是一种成年人的新型雅癖

  ]据说现在大家都习惯于看电子书,但就不以故事性为唯一追求的欧美漫画而言,纸张对色彩、线条及布局的美学表现却是独一无二、不可替代的。
  在中文的互联网世界里,人们把心甘情愿为一种爱好持续投入精力和金钱的行为叫做“入坑”,尤其指那些一开始只是“浅尝”或偶然接触,随即一发不可收拾的兴趣爱好。比如红酒,你最初可能仅知道几款常见的国产酒,习惯从超市里购买看不懂酒标的进口廉价红酒,因为觉得味道不错,开始有意识的品鉴更优质的红酒,逐渐了解各国的产区、酒庄、酿造年份等信息,贪婪地阅读红酒杂志和品鉴指南,不仅花钱买昂贵的酒,还购置了高档恒温酒柜,出国旅游时还会专门去一些酒庄实地拜访,感受当地的天气条件,查看葡萄生长的土壤……等等,忽然有一天,你会扪心自问,红酒这个烧钱杀时间的“大坑”,自己是什么时候踏进来的?
  有时候,当一个人准备打开一扇新世界大门的时候,说不定会遇上一个好心人,提醒你这是一个大坑,“入坑需谨慎”啊。然而,老谋深算者如我,最近几年却一不小心就入了“欧美漫画”这个大坑,如今已经深陷其中,难以自拔了。
  最初,我只是十分喜爱法国漫画家马克-安托万马修的名作《画的秘密》,于是欣然入手了两位西班牙作者的《黑猫侦探》。《黑猫侦探》是系列作品,有四本,所有的角色都是拟人化的动物,绘制的极为传神,情节则是雷蒙德钱德勒的硬汉侦探风格,讲述的是命案、情欲和枪战格斗故事,虽然每本要68元,我当然每一本都要买。随即国内又出了《睡魔》第一卷《前奏与夜曲》,这是美国漫画巨头DC公司的代表作,也是作者尼尔盖曼的成名作,单本售价128元,咬咬牙买了,可《睡魔》也是系列作品,而且有12卷之多!


  这才慢慢知道,“欧美漫画”并不是只针对青少年的一个图书小类,而是一个庞大的世界,仅仅是二十世纪以来的“欧美漫画”,就包括了书籍、艺术家、电影、漫画节和以成年人为主要对象的全球读者;并不是只有几本代表作、几个著名作者,而是有着众多经典作品,塑造了无数经典角色,作者群涵盖了从大师级的传奇人物到每年在电影节上初出茅庐的各国新秀。总之,“欧美漫画”是一个大坑,举一个我认为再贴切不过的例子做类比吧:你怎样认识欧美电影,就应当怎样认识欧美漫画,它们已经是国际公认可以并列的艺术门类。特别在法国,漫画是严肃的“第九艺术”。
  我入坑时间不长,但书柜里原本留给《四库全书总目提要》《说文解字段注》的空间已全部被欧美漫画占领,《睡魔》《黑猫侦探》等都是精装全彩大开本,俨然和我最珍视的中华书局五册《十三经注疏(嘉庆刊本)》们等高同列矣。

  当说起“欧美漫画”时,我们实际上已将其与中国漫画和日本漫画做了区分;其实,“欧美漫画”也只是一个笼统的标签,美国漫画和欧洲漫画之间的距离,和他们与日本漫画之间的距离差不多同样远。而如果深入探究欧洲漫画,则法国、比利时、德国等各个国家之间的漫画还有不同,这些更深入细致的区别,就不是一篇文章能够说清的了。
  关于美国、欧洲等漫画的不同,最根本的原因当然是文化差异,诸如历史背景、作者传承、读者口味等等。但文化这个筐子又委实太大,在我看来,最直接的原因就是产业模式的差异。吉莉斯罗斯在《观看的方法:如何解读视觉材料》中对视觉材料的研究,首先关注的是“生产”,我们不妨大致看一下这几种不同类别的漫画如何被“生产”出来,就能理解他们彼此风格的差异了。
  典型的美国漫画是一种大众消费品,多以英雄人物为主角,情节简单,正邪分明,节奏很快,与好莱坞电影很相似,事实上,很多以超级英雄为主角的美漫已被改编成了大片,早期的有超人、蝙蝠侠,最近的有复仇者联盟、银河特攻队等。美漫的很多中国拥趸都是通过电影“入坑”的。因为是一种大众消费品,所以美漫的生产速度非常快,一部典型漫画并不总是出自某一个艺术家之手,而是由团队共同创作,有的负责执笔绘制,有的负责创意编剧,而编剧和画家又常常穿插往来于不同的漫画工作室和团队,流水线作业提高了生产效率,也导致美漫的风格比较趋同。据说,漫威的灵魂人物斯坦李画的角色太多太重复,连他自己都记不住。漫画出版后,并不只针对青少年销售,很多漫画迷从童年就追同一个系列,居然能追到中年。此外,美国漫画产业不仅与影视产业相互关联,还与玩具、纪念品、衣物饰品、电子产品、明星娱乐等产业互动。总之,美国成熟的商业体制塑造了美漫多元化、综合化、商业化的庞大产业模式,这在全球第二大漫画节美国圣迭戈漫画节上体现的最为淋漓尽致。
  在欧洲就完全不同了,正如欧洲电影被认为更“文艺”,欧洲漫画也更富艺术性而非商业性。漫画作者多是独立创作,又绘画又编剧,还有很多“非虚构”和自传作品。因此,每个人的作品完全不同,个人风格极为明显,可以说,欧洲漫画是一种“作者漫画”,是艺术家表达个体情感、思想和世界观的工具,就像小说家和电影导演。同时,欧漫的艺术性还使得其印刷出版质量十分上乘,全彩色、大开本、铜版纸,一本漫画从创作到面市的时间会很久,成本不免高昂,但读者也愿意等,更愿意花上大价钱来购买和收藏。这些读者以成年人为主,而且拥有极好的艺术素养和品位。作为全球最大的漫画节,法国安古兰漫画节除了云集漫画家,更多的面孔就是这些来鉴赏巡礼的成年读者了。
  我们虽然以地域区分了美漫和欧漫,以及这次没有提到的日本漫画,但并不能一概而论,从漫画风格上理解更为妥帖。就像电影领域里,我们会将各国拍摄的“爆米花”电影笼统的称之为“好莱坞电影”,欧漫也并不局限于欧洲,比如有一批中国画家在欧洲出版的漫画作品也被纳入欧漫的范畴,遗憾的是这些中国作者的作品在国内几乎看不到。
  美漫里也有强调思想和艺术性、作者风格明显,想象力极为丰富的作品,如DC旗下子公司Vertigo出品的《睡魔》(The Sandman)系列、《成人童话》(Fables)系列等。特别是《睡魔》系列,中译本一经推出就大受好评,这部漫画虚构了一个“无尽家族”(Endless),成员包括命运,死亡,睡魔,毁灭,欲望,绝望以及狂热,这几个角色隐喻了人生最重要的主题,他们的故事也就使读者产生了丰富的阅读体验,再加上作者尼尔盖曼那粗犷、阴郁的绘画风格和极具想象力的情节设置,令这部作品风靡全球毫无悬念。
  对成年人来说,阅读欧美漫画不失为一种雅致的娱乐。特别是欧洲漫画,当你的目光蔓延在彩色大开本上,细细品味角色微妙传神的表情,感受复杂细致的景观描绘,甚至跟随作者的思绪走入久违的哲学思考,这种独特的艺术魅力会让人恨不能跳进漫画中去,化身为画笔之下的明晰线条。这种感受,与看电影、看画展,以及童年的时候看《圣斗士星矢》《机器猫》等日本漫画的体验完全不同。
  就像上文提到过的马克-安托万马修的《画的秘密》,这部黑白漫画用一种“画中有画”的叙事,包裹了一个十分奇妙又颇为感人的友情内核,故事的悬念只能通过绘画来展示,难以言传。出于对这部作品的喜爱,作者的另一部漫画《方向》刚刚引进到国内我就拿到了。《方向》是一部极为晦涩的作品,全书没有一个字,一个男人推开一扇门,跟随着箭头的方向,一直走、一直走、一直走,有时拐弯、有时折返、有时掉头,直到最后箭头的方向指向了大地(坟墓),全书就结束了。对这个漫画的意义,读者们展开了热烈的讨论,很多人都说看不懂,也恰恰因为此,有很多人给出了各式各样的解读,从存在主义哲学、康定斯基的抽象主义绘画、勋伯格的无调性音乐、罗伯格里耶的新小说、阿伦雷奈的实验电影,一直谈到最近的《纪念碑谷》游戏,涉及人文领域的方方面面。一部漫画的魅力可以略见一斑。

  这类蕴含着某种哲学思想或世界观的漫画在欧漫中并不鲜见,我们不妨称之为“哲学漫画”。另一种常见的风格则是“小说漫画”或“诗歌漫画”。
  前不久,我拿到了法国漫画家帕斯卡尔拉巴泰根据俄罗斯作家阿托尔斯泰的小说改编的《伊比库斯的预言》,一口气将其读完,大呼过瘾,原著是一本情节跌宕起伏,带有传奇性的小说,刻画了苏维埃革命期间人的渺小和命运的可怖。漫画不仅精彩的再现了原著的情节,尤为动人的是绘画的画风黑色、写意,人物形象弯曲、飘忽,像是从身体里勾出的灵魂,与一般的美漫和日漫那种清晰、写实的人物风格极为不同。这一类的“小说漫画”,国内已经引进的还有杰克伦敦的《海狼》、加缪的《局外人》等。


  有趣的是,新近被引进的日本漫画家谷口治郎的《散步去》,虽然拥有典型的日本画风,但因其浓郁的日本文学色彩,我愿意将其归为“欧漫”中的“诗歌漫画”,因其记叙了画家每天散步的些许经历,包括物候、花鸟、星空、雨雪,每一篇都像一首俳句:篇幅精短,散淡悠闲,又不乏情趣。
  另一类欧漫特有的作品,则是漫画家绘制自己的亲身经历、家族传记、社会调查,我将其称之为“纪录片漫画”。如艾蒂安达沃多的《酝酿之道:当漫画遇见葡萄酒》,是一部故事温馨、画风疏朗,且能让我这样的爱书人兼酒鬼会心一笑的黑白漫画,讲述了作者在酒庄和酿酒师一同酿酒的经历;如《摄影师》,绘制的是创作者在上世纪80年代的阿富汗从事医疗援助的经历,将摄影和绘画相结合,风格独特;还有在国内已经由两家出版社先后引进的《切尔诺贝利之春》,大尺幅彩色特写,描绘了那些住在隔离区附近,眷恋故土不愿意离开的人,揭示了灾难并不总是明火执仗的可怕敌人,而仅仅是日常生活的被迫改变。
  近几年,“欧美漫画”正从小众文化向大众文化进行扩散,网络上,欧美漫画的粉丝越来越多,他们聚集在一些网站和论坛,扫描上传自己的收藏,甚至自发进行翻译。上世纪八九十年代,日本漫画因其小开本、黑白色等特征,国内盗版猖獗,却使得日本漫画几乎成为漫画的代名词。而欧美漫画的大开本、全彩色、铜版纸等特征,使得盗版成本极为高昂,正是互联网的进步,才使得越来越多的读者更容易看到欧美漫画。
  于是,一些出版机构也开始大力引进翻译过硬、印制精良的正版欧美漫画,近年来,专业美术出版机构如人民美术出版社曾出版过法漫《朦胧都市》系列,三联书店推出了“欧洲经典漫画大师系列”,最不遗余力的是后浪出版公司,特地成立了一个品牌“后浪漫”专门做漫画的翻译和引进,上面提到的《睡魔》《方向》等美欧漫画,均是后浪的产品,从他们的宣传手册看,同样著名的《康斯坦丁》系列、《星际迷航》系列以及手冢治虫的作品,都在他们的引进之列。
  据说现在大家都习惯于看电子书,但就不以故事性为唯一追求的欧美漫画而言,纸张对色彩、线条及布局的美学表现却是独一无二、不可替代的,因此,我们不仅要阅读纸质版的欧美漫画,而且最好也不要站在书店里把漫画看完,这种快餐式的体验,怎么说都有点不厚道。(文/张向荣)

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